Persian rugs are very pretty, a classic example of Persian rugs are Kashan rugs. In Kashan rug, wool is often used for knotting. However, there are also many cases where silk is knotting. The Kashan Carpet name is coming from the Kashan city where this type of carpet is woven.
The city of Kashan is located in the north of Isfahan one of the biggest artistic and historic cities in Iran. Also, it’s located in the center of a large carpet production area.
In Kashan, a city that has long since become a center for making high-quality carpets, almost most inhabitants live on the carpet and women represent two-thirds of the people dedicated to carpet weaving.
Traditional weaving techniques of Kashan carpets are transmitted by grandmothers and mothers to their daughters and granddaughters through learning. Men also acquire through learning the techniques of designing, shearing wool, dyeing, and manufacturing looms and other instruments.
The process of manufacturing a carpet begins with the elaboration of a design based on a series of established styles with motifs of flowers, leaves, branches, animals and historical scenes. The carpet is woven on a loom called dar and the warp and weft threads are made of cotton or silk. To make the carpet, these threads are tied to the warp with a specific technique: the Farsi or Persian knot. Then, the knots are held with a weft thread. The Farsi technique of the fabric – also called the asymmetric knot – is practiced in Kashan with exceptional delicacy, which can be seen in the fine and regular knots on the back of the carpets.
Kashan’s rugs are among the best in Persian carpets thanks to the quality of their wool, their extraordinarily knots density and the beauty of color and drawings. To make Kashan rug a precise design, the weavers tie asymmetrically with knots of a density of 90,000-500,000. The two weft threads located between the rows of knots are a characteristic feature of high-quality Kashan carpets.
Traditional carpet weaving techniques in Kashan were chosen as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2010, by UNESCO.
The Kashan carpet is almost always adorned with a central medallion that ends at the top and bottom with two flowery crowns and in the rest of the background flowers and foliage are intertwined. In the elementary selection of the design, there are always variable patterns.
The colors of all Kashan rug are almost uniform: red alternates with blue and beige and these colors are also chosen especially in dark tones. The colors are obtained using natural dyes extracted from the nutshell, the pomegranate bark, the vine leaf, etc.
The Kashan carpet is knotted on vertical looms and its knot type is Persian knot, made of very good quality wool and its velvet is short. Also, the warp and woof in Kashan carpet are made of cotton. Furthermore, the density of the knots is from 2000 to 6,000 knots / dm², up to 9,000 knots / dm² for silk carpets
The “Panj rang” Kashan carpet (“five colors carpet”) is knotted only with wool of five colors. Generally, the background is ivory and the motifs have different shades of beige, gray and light blue.
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